Tizón o Helmintosporiosis común del Maíz (Exserohilum turcicum)

Grupo de cultivos: Cereales
Especie hospedante: Maíz (Zea mays)
Etiología: Hongo. Hemibiotrófico
Agente causal: Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) K.J. Leonard & Suggs

Taxonomía: Eukaryota > Fungi > Dikarya > Ascomycota > Pezizomycotina > Dothideomycetes > Pleosporales > Pleosporaceae > Exserohilum (anamorph) /  Setosphaeria (teleomorph)

synonym: Helminthosporium turcicum


Síntomas

Uno de los primeros síntomas consiste en la aparición de manchas pequeñas, ligeramente ovaladas y acuosas que se producen en las hojas. Estas lesiones se transforman luego en zonas necróticas y alargadas. Los síntomas aparecen generalmente en las hojas inferiores aproximadamente una semana después de la infección, como lesiones foliares de forma elíptica y alargadas. La longitud puede variar de 2,5 a 15 cm, y son predominantemente de color ceniza, a veces verde-grisáceas o pardas. La expresión de los síntomas puede variar dependiendo del genotipo de la planta. En infecciones severas las lesiones en las hojas crecen y coalescen, pudiendo llevar a la muerte prematura de la hoja y de la planta. Los primeros síntomas se inician en las hojas inferiores y prosiguen hacia la parte superior de la planta.  Bajo condiciones de alta humedad y temperaturas de 20 a 32 C, el patógeno esporula fácilmente sobre las lesiones foliares, produciendo una masa de esporas de coloración verde-oliva a negro, confiriendo un aspecto aterciopelado a la lesión. Por lo general las espigas no son afectadas por el patógeno, aunque algunas lesiones se pueden formar externamente sobre las brácteas (chalas) de la espiga. Sin embargo, las espigas de las plantas severamente afectadas son más pequeñas.

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Factores predisponenetes: alta humedad y temperaturas de 20 a 32 C.

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Antecedentes

Durante la campaña 2009-2010, esta enfermedad atacó severamente a lotes de maíz especialmente en la zona maicera de Córdoba y en algunas de Santa Fe. Desde entonces su importancia se ha incrementado especialmente sobre maíces de siembra tardía. El control químico y genético son alternativas para su manejo emergencial.

Manejo de la enfermedad

  • híbridos resistentes
  • rotación de cultivos
  • uso de fungicidas de acuerdo con el UDE

 

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