Roya anaranjada o de la hoja del Trigo (Puccinia triticina)

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Condición fitosanitaria: Presente

Grupo de cultivos: Cereales

Rango de hospedantes: muy específico / estrecho

Hospedante primario o agronómico (estado uredinial/telial): trigo común (Triticum aestivum L.), trigo duro (T. turgidum L. var. durum), trigo emmer cultivado (T. dicoccon) y trigo emmer silvestre (T. dicoccoides), Aegilops speltoides, pasto de cabra (Ae. cylindrica), y triticale (X Triticosecale) (estadios telial/uredinial) (Roelfs et al., 1992; Bolton et al., 2008)

Hospedante intermediario (estado pycnial/aecial): Thalictrum speciosissimum (= T. flavum glaucum) y Isopyrum fumaroides (estadios pycnial / aecial) (Roelfs et al., 1992; Bolton et al., 2008)

Epidemiología: policíclica, subaguda.

Ciclo: macrocíclica, heteroica

Etiología: Hongo. Biotrófico

Agente causal: Puccinia triticina  Erikss. 1899  (Pt) (ex Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici)

Taxonomía: Fungi > Basidiomycota > Pucciniomycotina > Pucciniomycetes > Pucciniales > Pucciniaceae > Puccinia

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Antecedentes e importancia económica

La roya anaranjada o de la hoja del tirgo causada por Puccinia triticina Erikss. se encuentra en casi todos los lugares donde se cultiva trigo en condiciones no áridas (Saari y Prescott, 1985; Samborski, 1985), y es la principal causa de pérdida de rendimiento en el trigo debido a enfermedades a nivel mundial (Savary et al., 2019).

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Síntomas y signos

Los síntomas pueden manifestarse en todos los órganos verdes de la planta. Surgen pequeñas pústulas (uredias) redondeadas de color anaranjado (vivaces) dispuestas sin orden sobre el haz superior de las hojas y se extienden hacia las vainas. En el interior de las uredias se producen las esporas denominadas urediniosporas de alrededor de 1.5 mm de diámetro. A estas pústulas le siguen los teleutosoros y sus correspondientes teleutosporas de color negro. Estas fructificaciones quedan cubiertas por la epidermis hasta el final del ciclo de la planta.

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Ciclo de la enfermedad, Epidemiología

El patógeno sobrevive parasitando plantas de trigo voluntarias (guachas). El viento es el principal mecanismo de diseminación de las urediniosporas. La roya anaranjada es la más común de todas y puede comenzar su infección desde la aparición de las primeras hojas. La temperatura óptima es de 16 a 18ºC, con 10 horas de mojado. Es la roya que virtualmente se presenta en todas las regiones trigueras. La diseminación por el viento es muy eficiente. El patrón de distribución en el lote es generalizada y uniforme.

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Condiciones predisponentes:

* Para el establecimiento de la enfermedad (infecciones primarias): Temperaturas del alrededor de 20 ° C y formación de rocío durante varias horas.

* Para la dispersión de la enfermedad (infecciones secundarias): Días soleados y ventosos, temperaturas de alrededor de 20 ° C y noches con formación de rocío durante varias horas.

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Factores de Riesgo: 

* Uso de cultivares susceptibles,

* Tiempo relativamente templado y húmedo

* Temperaturas por encima de la normal hacia fines de invierno   (15 de agosto al 15 de setiembre)

* Excesiva fertilización nitrogenada

* Alta densidad de plantas.

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Daños

La roya anaranjada es la roya más común que afecta el cultivo del trigo y la más plástica en requerimientos de temperaturas. Por esto, ocurre en todas las regiones trigueras.Su importancia relativa es de moderada a alta. Las plantas afectadas producen granos chuzos. En ataques tempranos e intensos producen menor número de granos/espiga.

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Ciclo de la enfermedad (link)

La etapa sexual de P. triticina rara vez se encuentra en Thalictrum spp. en América del Norte (Levine y Hildreth, 1957). Se ha encontrado en T. speciosissimum en el sur de Europa (Casulli y Siniscalco, 1987; D’Oliveira, 1940; D’Oliveira y Samborski, 1966; Young y D’Oliveira, 1982). Las infecciones del hospedante alternativo I. fumaroides parecen estar restringidas a una región de Siberia (Chester, 1946). En Argentina, no hay estudios actualizados sobre este aspecto de la enfermedad.

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Manejo de la enfermedad

Debido a sus características epidemiológicas, las rotaciones o el manejo de los rastrojos no son medidas adecuadas.

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Medidas preferenciales de manejo

* Uso de cultivares resistentes: es la medida más efectiva, aunque la resistencia de ciertos cultivares puede “quebrarse”.

* Eliminación de plantas guachas: es importante porque reduce el inóculo en un lote, pero por sí sola no es suficiente.

* Aplicación de fungicidas cuando se alcance el UDE (umbral de daño económico).

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Video

Rust: the fungi that attacks plants. Created by Chris Hammang, Producer Sean O’Donoghue, Scientific Consultant Peter Dodds. C SIRO (Video)

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